Lesson Plan: Enrique Linares’ “Skull”

(Enrique Linares, Skull, ca. 1993, papier-mâché, 9.1 inches X 7.6 inches X 10.5 inches, Tyler Museum of Art)

This lesson plan contains the Texas TEKS for Elementary, Middle, and High School art teachers. The lesson discusses the use of papier-mâché, color, and pattern to create a cartoneria.

If you use or reference this lesson plan, please leave a comment with your feedback. The lesson plan can be downloaded in the link below.


Culture: Mexico

Subject: Fine Arts, Art History

Collection: Tyler Museum of Art: Boeckman Collection

Grades: Elementary School, Middle School and High School

Topics: Artistic Practices, Art History, Critical Thinking

Art Vocabulary

Activity Vocabulary:

Papier Mâché:

  • This art technique is named after a French term for “chewed-up paper”. The artist takes strips of paper and applies a mixture of water, flour, and glue to bind the paper together as a three-dimensional object. When the strips dry, they harden into a hard and textured surface. Artists often paint the exterior of the artwork to complete the composition.

Cartoneria:

  • A presentation of the human figure that is exaggerated and painted with bright designs. This type of art form is often used for Day of the Dead celebrations, Latin American holidays, and celebrations in Mexico.

Day of the Dead (Dia de los Muertos):

  • A day of celebration for family members that have passed away. The individual’s memory is remembered by the family through celebrating their life, making food from Mexico, making an ofrenda, and creating sugar skulls.

Elements of Design:

  • Artists use the elements of design to create the foundation of the artwork. The elements of art include: line, shape, form, space, color, and texture.

Line:

  • An element of design; line is created on a surface with a pointed moving tool. Lines can range in size, width, texture, and presentation. Common types of line are vertical, horizontal, diagonal, zig-zag, and curved.

Shape:

  • An element of design; shape is a two-dimensional enclosed space that represents either an organic shape or a geometric shape. Geometric shapes include squares, circles, rectangles, triangles and other standard geometric shapes. Organic shapes include natural non-geometric shapes that are developed from curvilinear lines.

Form:

  • An element of design; form is a three-dimensional enclosed space that represents organic and geometric shapes in a third space. Geometric forms include cubes, spheres, triangular prisms, rectangular prisms, and cones. Organic shapes include three-dimensional forms observed in nature, such as trees, rivers, and rocks.

Space:

  • An element of design; this term defines the surface area between, before, and behind an object in a composition.

Color:

  • An element of design; this term defines the pigments used in a painting. Color can be organized into categories, such as: hues, values, complements, and intensity.

Texture:

  • An element of design; this term defines an artwork’s surface. The artist’s use of the chosen medium creates either implied or actual texture.

Principles of Design:

  • Artists used principles of design to build upon the foundational elements of design. This includes the following: rhythm, movement, balance, proportion, variety, emphasis, and unity. 

Rhythm/ Pattern:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the repetitive imagery and elements of design found in a composition.

Movement:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the visual movement observed in a painting. This can be identified as kinetic movement or implied movement. Additionally, movement can be defined as how the viewer’s eye moves throughout the composition.

Balance:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the arrangement of the presented imagery with the elements of design. It refers to either asymmetrical compositions or symmetrical compositions.

Proportion:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the comparative size between objects in the composition. It can refer to the imagery within a painting or the size between a sculpture and a real object.

Variety:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the combination of imagery, objects, and ideas in an artwork.

Emphasis:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the most prominent area in a composition. The viewer’s eye is drawn to this point because the artist used a mixture of the elements and principles of design.

Unity:

  • A principle of design; this term defines how the elements and principles of design are combined within a composition.

Resources for Vocabulary:

Arceo, René H. “The Art of Mexican Papier-Mâché.” National Museum of Mexican Art. Updated 2011. Accessed May 29, 2021. http://nationalmuseumofmexicanart.org/exhibits/art-mexican-papier-m%C3%A2ch%C3%A9.

Congdon, Kristin G. and Hallmark, Kara Kelley. “Linares Family: Pedro Linarea (1906 – 1992); Enrique Linares (b. 1933); Felipe Linares (b. 1936); Miguel Linares (b. 1946): Mexican Papier-Mâché Artists.” In Artists from Latin American Cultures: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport and London: Greenwood Press, 2002. https://www.google.com/books/edition/Artists_from_Latin_American_Cultures/h1oeV7vkPQIC?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=%22linares+family%22&pg=PA142&printsec=frontcover.  

Department of Classical and Modern Languages. “The Day of the Dead.” University of Louisville. Updated 2021. Accessed May 29, 2021. https://louisville.edu/spanish/old-archive/day_of_the_dead/dia_muertos_mexico.

Harris, Stephanie. “Object Record: Skull.” Tyler Museum of Art. Updated 2021. Accessed May 29, 2021. https://tylermuseum.pastperfectonline.com/webobject/4A4872E5-7CF9-4901-9F6F-758251489386.

“Papier mâché.” Museum of Modern Art: MoMA. Updated 2021. Accessed May 29, 2021. https://www.moma.org/collection/terms/papier-mache.

Ragan, Rosalins. “Elements of Art.” In Art Talk, 61 – 211. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Fransico: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

Ragan, Rosalins. “The Principles of Design.” In Art Talk, 211 – 347. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Fransisco: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

Elementary School Lesson Plans


Goals:

Elementary School Students of all Levels will be able to do the following:

  • Identify the Principles of Design used in the artwork;
  • Identify the Elements of Design used in the artwork;
  • Identify the Art Historical significance of the artwork;
  • And, identify how the artist used color and pattern to create a cartoneria.

Texas Elementary School TEKS:

Kindergarten, First Grade, Second Grade, Third Grade, Fourth Grade, and Fifth Grade


Kindergarten:

  • §117.102.b.1.A / B
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • gather information from subjects in the environment using the senses;
      • identify the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, and form, and the principles of design, including repetition/pattern and balance, in the environment.
  • §117.102.b.2. A / B
    • Creative Expression:
      • create artworks using a variety of lines, shapes, colors, textures, and forms;
      • arrange components intuitively to create artworks;
  • §117.102.b.3. A
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • identify simple subjects expressed in artworks;
  • §117.102.b.4. B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • express ideas found in collections such as real or virtual art museums, galleries, portfolios, or exhibitions using original artworks created by artists or peers;

First Grade:

  • §117.105.b.1.A / B
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • identify similarities, differences, and variations among subjects in the environment using the senses;
      • identify the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, and form, and the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, and balance, in nature and human-made environments.
  • §117.105.b.2. A / B
    • Creative Expression:
      • invent images that combine a variety of lines, shapes, colors, textures, and forms;
      • place components in orderly arrangements to create designs;
  • §117.105.b.3. A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • identify simple ideas expressed in artworks through different media;
      • demonstrate an understanding that art is created globally by all people throughout time;
  • §117.105.b.4.A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • explain ideas about personal artworks;
      • identify ideas found in collections such as real or virtual art museums, galleries, portfolios, or exhibitions using original artworks created by artists or peers.

Second Grade:

  • §117.108.b.1.A / B
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • compare and contrast variations in objects and subjects from the environment using the senses;
      • identify the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, and space, and the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, and balance.
  • §117.108.b.2. A / B
    • Creative Expression:
      • express ideas and feelings in personal artworks using a variety of lines, shapes, colors, textures, forms, and space;
      • create compositions using the elements of art and principles of design;
  • §117.108.b.3. A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • interpret stories, content, and meanings in a variety of artworks;
      • examine historical and contemporary artworks created by men and women, making connections to various cultures;
  • §117.108.b.4. A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • support reasons for preferences in personal artworks;
      • compare and contrast ideas found in collections such as real or virtual art museums, galleries, portfolios, or exhibitions using original artworks created by artists or peers;

Third Grade:

  • §117.111.b.1. B / C
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • use appropriate vocabulary when discussing the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, and the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity;
      • discuss the elements of art as building blocks and the principles of design as organizers of works of art.
  • §117.111.b.2. B
    • Creative Expression
      • create compositions using the elements of art and principles of design;
  • §117.111.b.3. A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • identify simple main ideas expressed in artworks from various times and places;
      • compare and contrast artworks created by historical and contemporary men and women, making connections to various cultures;
  • §117.111.b.4. A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response
      • evaluate the elements of art, principles of design, or expressive qualities in artworks of self, peers, and historical and contemporary artists;
      • use methods such as oral response or artist statements to identify main ideas found in collections of artworks created by self, peers, and major historical or contemporary artists in real or virtual portfolios, galleries, or art museums;

Fourth Grade:

  • §117.114.b.1. B / C
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • use appropriate vocabulary when discussing the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, and the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity;
      • discuss the elements of art as building blocks and the principles of design as organizers of works of art.
  • §117.114.b.2. A / B
    • Creative Expression:
      • integrate ideas drawn from life experiences to create original works of art;
      • create compositions using the elements of art and principles of design; and
  • §117.114.b.3. A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • compare content in artworks for various purposes such as the role art plays in reflecting life, expressing emotions, telling stories, or documenting history and traditions;
      • compare purpose and content in artworks created by historical and contemporary men and women, making connections to various cultures;
  • §117.114.b.4. A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response
      • evaluate the elements of art, principles of design, intent, or expressive qualities in artworks of self, peers, and historical and contemporary artists.
      • use methods such as written or oral response or artist statements to identify emotions found in collections of artworks created by self, peers, and major historical or contemporary artists in real or virtual portfolios, galleries, or art museums;

Fifth Grade:

  • §117.117.b.1.B / C
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • use appropriate vocabulary when discussing the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, and the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity; and
      • discuss the elements of art as building blocks and the principles of design as organizers of works of art.
  • §117.117.b.2. A / B
    • Creative Expression:
      • integrate ideas drawn from life experiences to create original works of art;
      • create compositions using the elements of art and principles of design;
  • §117.117.b.3. A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • compare the purpose and effectiveness of artworks from various times and places, evaluating the artist’s use of media and techniques, expression of emotions, or use of symbols;
      • compare the purpose and effectiveness of artworks created by historic and contemporary men and women, making connections to various cultures;
  • §117.117.b.4. A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response
      • evaluate the elements of art, principles of design, general intent, media and techniques, or expressive qualities in artworks of self, peers, or historical and contemporary artists;
      • use methods such as written or oral response or artist statements to identify themes found in collections of artworks created by self, peers, and major historical or contemporary artists in real or virtual portfolios, galleries, or art museums;

Elementary School Art Activities

Questions for Elementary School Students:

  1. Examine Enrique Linares’ Skull and identify the elements of design in the artwork.
  2. Examine Enrique Linares’ Skull and identify the principles of design in the artwork.
  3. Do you think the skull should be anatomically correct? Why or why not?
  4. How does the artist use pattern to create the image of a skull? Explain.

Activity: Elementary School Fine Arts

  • Activity Setting: Classroom
  • Materials: Styrofoam ball, paper, glue, water, pencil, and Tempera or Acrylic paint
  • Subject: Papier-maché, Painting
  • Texas TEKS: Kindergarten, First Grade, Second Grade, Third Grade, Fourth Grade, and Fifth Grade
  • Duration: Single Day Project or an Extended Project

Examine Enrique Linares’ Skull. Create your own version of the skull. Every student will get a small Styrofoam sphere. The student will create a skull by placing strips of paper into a glue/water solution and wrapping them around the Styrofoam. The goal is to have a flat face that curves onto the Styrofoam sphere. Once the student created the skull, place it on a flat surface and let it dry. Afterwards, the students will use either Tempera or Acrylic paint to create the eyes, nose, and mouth of the skull. The student will complete the skull by painting patterns on the back of the skull.


Activity: Elementary School Art History

  • Activity Setting: Classroom
  • Materials: Pencil/ Pen on Paper or Word Document
  • Subject: Research, Artwork Analysis
  • Texas TEKS: Kindergarten, First Grade, Second Grade, Third Grade, Fourth Grade, and Fifth Grade
  • Duration: Single Day Assignment or a Research Paper

Examine Enrique Linares’ Skull. Answer the following question: How does Linares use color and pattern to emphasize the cartoneria qualities in his Skull? Write a one page response that explains your answer.


Resources:

“19 TAC Chapter 117. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Fine Arts.” Texas Education Agency. Updated 2020. Accessed April 29, 2021. http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter117/.

Arceo, René H. “The Art of Mexican Papier-Mâché.” National Museum of Mexican Art. Updated 2011. Accessed May 29, 2021. http://nationalmuseumofmexicanart.org/exhibits/art-mexican-papier-m%C3%A2ch%C3%A9.

Congdon, Kristin G. and Hallmark, Kara Kelley. “Linares Family: Pedro Linarea (1906 – 1992); Enrique Linares (b. 1933); Felipe Linares (b. 1936); Miguel Linares (b. 1946): Mexican Papier-Mâché Artists.” In Artists from Latin American Cultures: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport and London: Greenwood Press, 2002. https://www.google.com/books/edition/Artists_from_Latin_American_Cultures/h1oeV7vkPQIC?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=%22linares+family%22&pg=PA142&printsec=frontcover.  

Department of Classical and Modern Languages. “The Day of the Dead.” University of Louisville. Updated 2021. Accessed May 29, 2021. https://louisville.edu/spanish/old-archive/day_of_the_dead/dia_muertos_mexico.

Harris, Stephanie. “Object Record: Skull.” Tyler Museum of Art. Updated 2021. Accessed May 29, 2021. https://tylermuseum.pastperfectonline.com/webobject/4A4872E5-7CF9-4901-9F6F-758251489386.

“Papier mâché.” Museum of Modern Art: MoMA. Updated 2021. Accessed May 29, 2021. https://www.moma.org/collection/terms/papier-mache.

Ragan, Rosalins. “Elements of Art.” In Art Talk, 61 – 211. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Fransico: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

Ragan, Rosalins. “The Principles of Design.” In Art Talk, 211 – 347. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Fransisco: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

Middle School Lesson Plans

Goals:

Middle School Students of all Levels will be able to do the following:

  • Identify the Principles of Design used in the artwork;
  • Identify the Elements of Design used in the artwork;
  • Identify the Art Historical significance of the artwork;
  • And, identify how the artist used color and pattern to create a Cartoneria.

Texas Middle School TEKS:

Art 1, Art 2, Art 3


Art 1:

  • §117.202.c.1.B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • understand and apply the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artworks using art vocabulary appropriately;
      • understand and apply the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artworks using art vocabulary appropriately;
      • discuss the expressive properties of artworks such as appropriation, meaning, narrative, message, and symbol using art vocabulary accurately.
  • §117.202.c.1.A
    • Creative Expression:
      • create original artworks based on direct observations, original sources, personal experiences, and the community;
  • §117.202.c.3.A / C
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • identify the influence of historical and political events in artworks;
      • explain the relationships that exist between societies and their art and architecture;
  • §117.202.c.4.A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response
      • create written or oral responses to artwork using appropriate art vocabulary;
      • analyze original artworks using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;

Art 2:

  • §117.203.b.1.B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • compare and contrast the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artworks using vocabulary accurately;
      • compare and contrast the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artworks using vocabulary accurately;
      • understand and apply the expressive properties of artworks such as appropriation, meaning, narrative, message, and symbol using art vocabulary accurately.
  • §117.203.b.1.A
    • Creative Expression:
      • create original artworks that express a variety of ideas based on direct observations, original sources, and personal experiences, including memory, identity, imagination, and the community;
  • §117.203.b.3.A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • analyze ways that global, cultural, historical, and political issues influence artworks;
      • analyze selected artworks to determine contemporary relevance in relationship to universal themes such as belief, cultural narrative, life cycles, the passage of time, identity, conflict, and cooperation;
  • §117.203.b.4.A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • create written or oral responses about personal or collaborative artworks addressing purpose, technique, organization, judgment, and personal expression;
      • analyze original artworks using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;

Art 3:

  • §117.203.b.1.A / B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • evaluate the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artworks using vocabulary accurately;
      • evaluate the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artworks using vocabulary accurately;
      • compare and contrast the expressive properties of artworks, including appropriation, meaning, narrative, message, and symbol, using vocabulary accurately.
  • §117.203.b.1.A
    • Creative Expression:
      • create original artworks expressing themes found through direct observation; original sources; personal experiences, including memory, identity, and imagination; and the community;
  • §117.203.b.3.A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • analyze ways in which global, contemporary, historical, and political issues have influenced art;
      • analyze cultural ideas expressed in artworks relating to social, political, and environmental themes such as environment/nature, conflict and power, relationships to others, and reality/fantasy;
  • §117.203.b.4.A
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • create written and oral responses about personal or collaborative artworks addressing purpose, technique, organization, judgment, and personal expression;

Middle School Art Activities


Questions for Middle School Students:

  1. Examine Enrique Linares’ Skull and identify the elements of design in the artwork.
  2. Examine Enrique Linares’ Skull and identify the principles of design in the artwork.
  3. Do you think the skull should be anatomically correct? Why or why not?
  4. How does the artist use pattern to create the image of a skull? Explain.

Activity: Middle School Fine Arts

  • Activity Setting: Classroom
  • Materials: Styrofoam ball, paper, glue, water, pencil, and Tempera or Acrylic paint
  • Subject: Papier-maché, Painting
  • Texas TEKS: Art 1, Art 2, Art 3
  • Duration: Single Day Project or an Extended Project

Examine Enrique Linares’ Skull. Create your own version of the skull. Every student will get a small Styrofoam sphere. The student will create a skull by placing strips of paper into a glue/water solution and wrapping them around the Styrofoam. The goal is to have a flat face that curves onto the Styrofoam sphere. Once the student created the skull, place it on a flat surface and let it dry. Afterwards, the students will use either Tempera or Acrylic paint to create the eyes, nose, and mouth of the skull. The student will complete the skull by painting patterns on the back of the skull. Then the student will write a page discussing the elements and principles of design used to create the skull.


Activity: Middle School Art History

  • Activity Setting: Classroom
  • Materials: Pencil/ Pen on Paper or Word Document
  • Subject: Research, Artwork Analysis
  • Texas TEKS: Art 1, Art 2, Art 3
  • Duration: Single Day Assignment or a Research Paper

Examine Enrique Linares’ Skull. Answer the following question: How does Linares use color and pattern to emphasize the cartoneria qualities in his Skull? Write a two – three page response that explains your answer.


Resources:

“19 TAC Chapter 117. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Fine Arts.” Texas Education Agency. Updated 2020. Accessed April 29, 2021. http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter117/.

Arceo, René H. “The Art of Mexican Papier-Mâché.” National Museum of Mexican Art. Updated 2011. Accessed May 29, 2021. http://nationalmuseumofmexicanart.org/exhibits/art-mexican-papier-m%C3%A2ch%C3%A9.

Congdon, Kristin G. and Hallmark, Kara Kelley. “Linares Family: Pedro Linarea (1906 – 1992); Enrique Linares (b. 1933); Felipe Linares (b. 1936); Miguel Linares (b. 1946): Mexican Papier-Mâché Artists.” In Artists from Latin American Cultures: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport and London: Greenwood Press, 2002. https://www.google.com/books/edition/Artists_from_Latin_American_Cultures/h1oeV7vkPQIC?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=%22linares+family%22&pg=PA142&printsec=frontcover.  

Department of Classical and Modern Languages. “The Day of the Dead.” University of Louisville. Updated 2021. Accessed May 29, 2021. https://louisville.edu/spanish/old-archive/day_of_the_dead/dia_muertos_mexico.

Harris, Stephanie. “Object Record: Skull.” Tyler Museum of Art. Updated 2021. Accessed May 29, 2021. https://tylermuseum.pastperfectonline.com/webobject/4A4872E5-7CF9-4901-9F6F-758251489386.

“Papier mâché.” Museum of Modern Art: MoMA. Updated 2021. Accessed May 29, 2021. https://www.moma.org/collection/terms/papier-mache.

Ragan, Rosalins. “Elements of Art.” In Art Talk, 61 – 211. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Fransico: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

Ragan, Rosalins. “The Principles of Design.” In Art Talk, 211 – 347. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Fransisco: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

High School Lesson Plans


Goals:

High School Students of all Levels will be able to do the following:

  • Identify the Principles of Design used in the artwork;
  • Identify the Elements of Design used in the artwork;
  • Identify the Art Historical significance of the artwork;
  • And, identify how the artist used color and pattern to create a Cartoneria.

Texas High School TEKS:

Art Level I, Level II, Level III, and Level IV


Level I:

  • §117.302.c.1.B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • identify and understand the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artwork;
      • identify and understand the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artwork;
      • make judgments about the expressive properties such as content, meaning, message, and metaphor of artwork using art vocabulary accurately.
  • §117.302.c.2.A / D
    • Creative Expression:
      • use visual solutions to create original artwork by problem solving through direct observation, original sources, experiences, narrations, and imagination;
      • create original artwork to communicate thoughts, feelings, ideas, or impressions;
  • §117.302.c.3.A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance
      • compare and contrast historical and contemporary styles while identifying general themes and trends;
      • describe general characteristics in artwork from a variety of cultures, which might also include personal identity and heritage;
  • §117.302.c.4.B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response
      • evaluate and analyze artwork using a verbal or written method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;

Level II:

  • §117.303.c.1. B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • identify and apply the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artworks;
      •  identify and apply the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity in personal artworks;
      • explore suitability of art media and processes to express specific ideas such as content, meaning, message, appropriation, and metaphor relating to visual themes of artworks using art vocabulary accurately.
  • §117.303.c.2.B / D
    • Creative Expression:
      • apply design skills in creating practical applications, clarifying presentations, and examining consumer choices in order to make successful design decisions;
      •  create original artwork to communicate thoughts, feelings, ideas, or impressions;
  • §117.303.c.3.A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • examine selected historical periods or styles of art to identify general themes and trends;
      • analyze specific characteristics in artwork from a variety of cultures;
  • §117.303.c.4. B / E
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • evaluate and analyze artwork using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;
      • select and analyze original artwork, portfolios, and exhibitions to form precise conclusions about formal qualities, historical and cultural contexts, intentions, and meanings.

Level III:

  • §117.304.c.1.B / C
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • compare and contrast the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artwork;
      • compare and contrast the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artwork;
  • §117.304.c.2.A / B / D
    • Creative Expression:
      • create original artwork using multiple solutions from direct observation, original sources, experiences, and imagination in order to expand personal themes that demonstrate artistic intent;
      • solve visual problems and develop multiple solutions for designing ideas, creating practical applications, clarifying presentations, and evaluating consumer choices in order to make successful design decisions;
      • create original artwork to communicate thoughts, feelings, ideas, or impressions;
  • §117.304.c.3.A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • research selected historical periods, artists, general themes, trends, and styles of art;
      • distinguish the correlation between specific characteristics and influences of various cultures and contemporary artwork;
  • §117.304.c.4.B / C
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • evaluate and analyze artwork using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;
      • analyze personal artwork in order to create a written response such as an artist’s statement reflecting intent, inspiration, the elements of art and principles of design within the artwork, and measure of uniqueness;

Level IV:

  • §117.305.c.1.B / C
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • compare and contrast the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artwork;
      • compare and contrast the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artwork;
  • §117.305.c.2.B / D
    • Creative Expression:
      • evaluate and justify design ideas and concepts to create a body of personal artwork;
      • create original artwork to communicate thoughts, feelings, ideas, or impressions;
  • §117.305.c.3.A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • research and report on selected historical periods, artists, general themes, trends, and styles of art;
      • analyze and evaluate the influence of contemporary cultures on artwork;
  • §117.305.c.4.A / B / C
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • develop evaluative criteria to justify artistic decisions in artwork such as that in museums, local galleries, art exhibits, and websites based on a high level of creativity and expertise in one or more art areas;
      • evaluate and analyze artwork using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;
      • analyze personal artwork in order to create a written response such as an artist’s statement reflecting intent, inspiration, the elements of art and principles of design within the artwork, and the measure of uniqueness;

High School Art Activities


Questions for High School Students:

  1. Examine Enrique Linares’ Skull and identify the elements of design in the artwork.
  2. Examine Enrique Linares’ Skull and identify the principles of design in the artwork.
  3. Do you think the skull should be anatomically correct? Why or why not?
  4. How does the artist use pattern to create the image of a skull? Explain.

Activity: High School Fine Arts

  • Activity Setting: Classroom and/or outdoor location
  • Materials: Styrofoam ball, paper, glue, water, pencil, and Tempera or Acrylic paint
  • Subject: Papier-maché, Painting
  • Texas TEKS: Art Level I, Level II, Level III, and Level IV
  • Duration: Single Day Project or an Extended Project

Examine Enrique Linares’ Skull. Create your own version of the skull. Every student will get a small Styrofoam sphere. The student will create a skull by placing strips of paper into a glue/water solution and wrapping them around the Styrofoam. The goal is to have a flat face that curves onto the Styrofoam sphere. Once the student created the skull, place it on a flat surface and let it dry. Afterwards, the students will use either Tempera or Acrylic paint to create the eyes, nose, and mouth of the skull. The student will complete the skull by painting patterns on the back of the skull. Then the student will write 3 – 4 pages discussing the elements and principles of design used to create the skull.


Activity: High School Art History

  • Activity Setting: Classroom
  • Materials: Pencil/ Pen on Paper or Word Document
  • Subject: Research, Artwork Analysis
  • Texas TEKS: Art Level I, Level II, Level III, and Level IV
  • Duration: Single Day Assignment or a Research Paper

Examine Enrique Linares’ Skull. Answer the following question: How does Linares use color and pattern to emphasize the cartoneria qualities in his Skull? Write a three – four page response that explains your answer.


Resources:

“19 TAC Chapter 117. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Fine Arts.” Texas Education Agency. Updated 2020. Accessed April 29, 2021. http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter117/.

Arceo, René H. “The Art of Mexican Papier-Mâché.” National Museum of Mexican Art. Updated 2011. Accessed May 29, 2021. http://nationalmuseumofmexicanart.org/exhibits/art-mexican-papier-m%C3%A2ch%C3%A9.

Congdon, Kristin G. and Hallmark, Kara Kelley. “Linares Family: Pedro Linarea (1906 – 1992); Enrique Linares (b. 1933); Felipe Linares (b. 1936); Miguel Linares (b. 1946): Mexican Papier-Mâché Artists.” In Artists from Latin American Cultures: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport and London: Greenwood Press, 2002. https://www.google.com/books/edition/Artists_from_Latin_American_Cultures/h1oeV7vkPQIC?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=%22linares+family%22&pg=PA142&printsec=frontcover.  

Department of Classical and Modern Languages. “The Day of the Dead.” University of Louisville. Updated 2021. Accessed May 29, 2021. https://louisville.edu/spanish/old-archive/day_of_the_dead/dia_muertos_mexico.

Harris, Stephanie. “Object Record: Skull.” Tyler Museum of Art. Updated 2021. Accessed May 29, 2021. https://tylermuseum.pastperfectonline.com/webobject/4A4872E5-7CF9-4901-9F6F-758251489386.

“Papier mâché.” Museum of Modern Art: MoMA. Updated 2021. Accessed May 29, 2021. https://www.moma.org/collection/terms/papier-mache.

Ragan, Rosalins. “Elements of Art.” In Art Talk, 61 – 211. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Fransico: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

Ragan, Rosalins. “The Principles of Design.” In Art Talk, 211 – 347. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Fransisco: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

For more educational resources created by the Tyler Museum of Art, visit our YouTube page by clicking on the YouTube button or clicking the link below.

If you use or reference this lesson plan, please leave a comment with your feedback.

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