Lesson Plan: Charles Criner’s “Lady with Trout”

This lesson plan contains the Texas TEKS for Elementary, Middle, and High School art teachers. Students will learn about the art and life of Charles Criner and his teacher Dr. John Biggers. Then, the students will create a small print series that celebrates the student’s heritage and history.


If you use or reference this lesson plan, please leave a comment with your feedback. The lesson plan can be downloaded in the link below.


Charles Edward Criner, Lady with Trout, 1998, lithograph, 9.5 inches X 12.5 inches, Tyler Museum of Art, Tyler, Texas.

Culture: American

Subject: Fine Art, Art History

Collection: Tyler Museum of Art’s Permanent Collection

Grades: Elementary School, Middle School and High School

Topics: Artistic Practices, Art History, Critical Thinking, and African American History


Art Vocabulary

Activity Vocabulary:

Charles Edward Criner:

  • Charles Criner is an African American painter, printmaker, and illustrator.
  • He was born in Athens, Texas in 1945.
  • From 1964 – 1968, Criner studied art at the Texas Southern University, where he was taught by Dr. John Biggers.
  • Dr. Biggers introduced Criner to lithography.
  • Occasionally, while Criner was a student, Dr. Biggers would create the lithograph and Criner would run the plate through the printing press.
  • He graduated with a bachelor’s degree in art education from Texas Southern University.
  • Inspired by Dr. Biggers, he traveled to Africa to study the Southern African culture, traditions, and art.
  • When he returned to America, he applied his studies to the African American individuals that he represents.
  • This led to his style of Regionalism, where he focuses on people working, fishing. and expressing themselves through clothing and dance.
  • After graduating, he began designing billboards and posters, as well as advertisements for NASA and the Houston Post.
  • Between 1970 – 1972, Criner served in the United States Army and was honorably discharged.
  • After his service, he continued to work in advertising for the Houston Post and Houston Chronicle.
  • In 1997, he was an artist is residence at the Museum of Printing History in Houston, Texas.

Dr. John Biggers:

  • Dr. John Biggers was an African American printmaker, illustrator, and painter.
  • He was born in 1924 and he died in 2001 at the age of 76.
  • He attended Hampton University, where he studied Art History, African American History, Mexican Muralists, and American Regionalism.
  • In 1943, he was drafted and served in the United States Navy. He was later honorably discharged in 1945.
  • He studied at Pennsylvania State University, where he received his bachelors and master’s in art education for all grade levels.
  • In 1949, he founded the art department at the Texas Southern University. Here, he taught printmaking, drawing, and painting, as well as African American art and culture.
  • He taught Charles Criner, who is one of his most successful students.
  • In 1957, Dr. Biggers was granted a fellowship by the United Nations Educational Scientific Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to study art in Western Africa.
  • Over the course of his life, he would visit Africa three more times.
  • After teaching at the Texas Southern University for 34 years, he retired in 1983.
  • Due to his artistic and educational achievements, he was awarded an honorary doctorate degree from the Hampton University in 1990.

Printmaking:

  • A process of art making that allows an artist to create multiple copies of an image. The image is created by placing ink over a plate that was manipulated by the artist. This process includes lithography.

Lithograph:

  • A lithograph is a type of print.
    • To create a lithograph, the artist draws an image on a prepared limestone plate with an oil-based crayon.
    • Then, the artist applies a coat of rosin and talcum powder to the top of the plate.
    • Afterwards, a gum aribic acid solution is painted onto the plate. This allows a chemical reaction to occur with the previously applied materials.
    • After the solution has set, the artist wipes away the original sketch with a solvent called lithotine.
    • The result is a ghost image caused by the application of solutions. Once the plate is dry, the artist rolls ink across the surface of the plate.
    • When this process is complete, the artist places a piece of paper on the plate rolls the plate through the press.
    • The result is an ink image from the plate onto the paper.

Edition:

  • An edition is the a recreation of an image, often attributed to printmaking. A specific print can have an edition number, meaning the number in a series of copies. An example can be the 12th copy of 100 copies.

Figures:

  • A figure, commonly found in figurative art, is often referencing a person depicted in artwork. The individuals can be represented in a variety of styles, ranging from realistic to abstraction.

Models:

  • A model is a person who is being drawn, painted, or sculpted. They will sit or stand in a particular pose to help the artist create the scene.

Genre Scene:

  • A painting that exhibits scenes and structures from everyday life; often includes figures and objects arranged in a space to appear mundane and ordinary.

Elements of Design:

  • Artists use the elements of design to create the foundation of the artwork. The elements of art include: line, shape, form, space, color, and texture.

Line:

  • An element of design; line is created on a surface with a pointed moving tool. Lines can range in size, width, texture, and presentation. Common types of line are vertical, horizontal, diagonal, zig-zag, and curved.

Shape:

  • An element of design; shape is a two-dimensional enclosed space that represents either an organic shape or a geometric shape. Geometric shapes include squares, circles, rectangles, triangles and other standard geometric shapes. Organic shapes include natural non-geometric shapes that are developed from curvilinear lines.

Form:

  • An element of design; form is a three-dimensional enclosed space that represents organic and geometric shapes in a third space. Geometric forms include cubes, spheres, triangular prisms, rectangular prisms, and cones. Organic shapes include three-dimensional forms observed in nature, such as trees, rivers, and rocks.

Space:

  • An element of design; this term defines the surface area between, before, and behind an object in a composition.

Color:

  • An element of design; this term defines the pigments used in a painting. Color can be organized into categories, such as: hues, values, complements, and intensity.

Texture:

  • An element of design; this term defines an artwork’s surface. The artist’s use of the chosen medium creates either implied or actual texture.

Principles of Design:

  • Artists used principles of design to build upon the foundational elements of design. This includes the following: rhythm, movement, balance, proportion, variety, emphasis, and unity. 

Rhythm/ Pattern:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the repetitive imagery and elements of design found in a composition.

Movement:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the visual movement observed in a painting. This can be identified as kinetic movement or implied movement. Additionally, movement can be defined as how the viewer’s eye moves throughout the composition.

Balance:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the arrangement of the presented imagery with the elements of design. It refers to either asymmetrical compositions or symmetrical compositions.

Proportion:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the comparative size between objects in the composition. It can refer to the imagery within a painting or the size between a sculpture and a real object.

Variety:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the combination of imagery, objects, and ideas in an artwork.

Emphasis:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the most prominent area in a composition. The viewer’s eye is drawn to this point because the artist used a mixture of the elements and principles of design.

Unity:

  • A principle of design; this term defines how the elements and principles of design are combined within a composition.

Bibliography: Resources for Vocabulary and Lesson Plan

“Art Term: Edition.” Tate Modern Museum of Art. Updated 2021. Accessed May 17, 2021. https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/e/edition.

“Art Term: Genre Painting.” Tate Modern Museum of Art. Updated 2021. Accessed April 29, 2021. https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/g/genre-painting.

Camp, Michael. “Realism, Symbolism, and Identity: The John Biggers Papers.” Stuart A. Rose Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library. Updated October 3, 2014. Accessed May 17, 2022. https://scholarblogs.emory.edu/marbl/2014/10/03/realism-symbolism-and-identity-the-john-biggers-papers/

“Criner, Charles: Cushing Library.” Texas A&M University Libraries: Cushing Maniscript Collections Database. Updated 2012. Accessed: May 13, 2022. https://archon.library.tamu.edu/?p=creators/creator&id=184.

“Charles Criner: b. 1945.” Foltz Gallery. Updated 2022. Accessed May 13, 2022. https://foltzgallery.com/artist/charles-criner.

Inniss, Susan. “Dr. John Biggers: 1924 – 2001.” In African American Artists III. Edited by Billy E. Hodges, 14 – 15. New York: Bill Hodges Gallery, 2002. (In Tyler Museum of Art Library).

Ives, Colta. “Lithography in the Nineteenth Century.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Updated October 2004. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/lith/hd_lith.htm.

“John Thomas Biggers.” The G.C. and Frances Hawley Museum. Updated 2020. Accessed May 17, 2022. https://www.ncmaahc.org/posts/ohn-thomas-biggers

Office of the Secretary of State. “§117.102: Art, Kindergarten, Adopted 2013.” Texas Education Agency: Education, updated 2013, accessed January 5, 2022, https://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext.TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&p_tac=&ti=19&pt=2&ch=117&rl=102.

Office of the Secretary of State. “§117.105: Art, Grade 1, Adopted 2013.” Texas Education Agency: Education, updated 2013, accessed January 5, 2022, https://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext.TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&p_tac=&ti=19&pt=2&ch=117&rl=105.

Office of the Secretary of State. “§117.108: Art, Grade 2, Adopted 2013.” Texas Education Agency: Education, updated 2013, accessed January 5, 2022, https://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext.TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&p_tac=&ti=19&pt=2&ch=117&rl=108.

Office of the Secretary of State. “§117.111: Art, Grade 3, Adopted 2013.” Texas Education Agency: Education, updated 2013, accessed January 5, 2022, https://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext.TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&p_tac=&ti=19&pt=2&ch=117&rl=111.

Office of the Secretary of State. “§117.114: Art, Grade 4, Adopted 2013.” Texas Education Agency: Education, updated 2013, accessed January 5, 2022, https://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext.TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&p_tac=&ti=19&pt=2&ch=117&rl=114.

Office of the Secretary of State. “§117.117: Art, Grade 5, Adopted 2013.” Texas Education Agency: Education, updated 2013, accessed January 5, 2022, https://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext.TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&p_tac=&ti=19&pt=2&ch=117&rl=117.

Office of the Secretary of State. “§117.202: Art, Middle School 1, Adopted 2013.” Texas Education Agency: Education, updated 2013, accessed January 5, 2022, https://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext.TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&p_tac=&ti=19&pt=2&ch=117&rl=202.

Office of the Secretary of State. “§117.203: Art, Middle School 2, Adopted 2013.” Texas Education Agency: Education, updated 2013, accessed January 5, 2022, https://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext.TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&p_tac=&ti=19&pt=2&ch=117&rl=203.

Office of the Secretary of State. “§117.204: Art, Middle School 3, Adopted 2013.” Texas Education Agency: Education, updated 2013, accessed January 5, 2022, https://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext.TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&p_tac=&ti=19&pt=2&ch=117&rl=204.

Office of the Secretary of State. “§117.302: Art, Level I, Adopted 2013.” Texas Education Agency: Education, updated 2013, accessed January 5, 2022, https://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext.TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&p_tac=&ti=19&pt=2&ch=117&rl=302.

Office of the Secretary of State. “§117.303: Art, Level II, Adopted 2013.” Texas Education Agency: Education, updated 2013, accessed January 5, 2022, https://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext.TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&p_tac=&ti=19&pt=2&ch=117&rl=303.

Office of the Secretary of State. “§117.304: Art, Level III, Adopted 2013.” Texas Education Agency: Education, updated 2013, accessed January 5, 2022, https://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext.TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&p_tac=&ti=19&pt=2&ch=117&rl=304.

Office of the Secretary of State. “§117.305: Art, Level IV, Adopted 2013.” Texas Education Agency: Education, updated 2013, accessed January 5, 2022, https://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext.TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&p_tac=&ti=19&pt=2&ch=117&rl=305.

Ragan, Rosalins. “Elements of Art.” In Art Talk, 61 – 211. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Francisco: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

Ragan, Rosalins. “The Principles of Design.” In Art Talk, 211 – 347. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Francisco: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

Zanis, Liz. “Lithograph.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Updated 2018. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://www.metmuseum.org/about-the-met/collection-areas/drawings-and-prints/materials-and-techniques/printmaking/lithograph.


Elementary School Lesson Plan


Goals:

Elementary School Students of all levels will be able to do the following:

  • Identify the principles of design used in the artwork;
  • Identify the elements of design used in the artwork;
  • Learn about Charles Criner’s art style and heritage;
  • And, create a Styrofoam print that celebrates their heritage or history.

Texas Elementary School TEKS:

Kindergarten, First Grade, Second Grade, Third Grade, Fourth Grade, and Fifth Grade


Kindergarten:

  • §117.102.b.1.A / B
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • gather information from subjects in the environment using the senses;
      • identify the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, and form, and the principles of design, including repetition/pattern and balance, in the environment.
  • §117.102.b.2. A / C
    • Creative Expression:
      • create artworks using a variety of lines, shapes, colors, textures, and forms;
      • use a variety of materials to develop manipulative skills while engaging in opportunities for exploration through drawing, painting, printmaking, constructing artworks, and sculpting, including modeled forms.
  • §117.102.b.3. A / B / C
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • identify simple subjects expressed in artworks;
      • share ideas about personal experiences such as family and friends and develop awareness and sensitivity to differing experiences and opinions through artwork;
      • identify the uses of art in everyday life;
  • §117.102.b.4.A / B / C
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • express ideas about personal artworks or portfolios;
      • express ideas found in collections such as real or virtual art museums, galleries, portfolios, or exhibitions using original artworks created by artists or peers;

First Grade:

  • §117.105.b.1.A / B
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • identify similarities, differences, and variations among subjects in the environment using the senses;
      • identify the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, and form, and the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, and balance, in nature and human-made environments.
  • §117.105.b.2. A / C
    • Creative Expression:
      • invent images that combine a variety of lines, shapes, colors, textures, and forms;
      • increase manipulative skills necessary for using a variety of materials to produce drawings, paintings, prints, constructions, and sculptures, including modeled forms.
  • §117.105.b.3. A / B / C
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • identify simple ideas expressed in artworks through different media;
      • demonstrate an understanding that art is created globally by all people throughout time;
      • discuss the use of art in everyday life;
  • §117.105.b.4.A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • explain ideas about personal artworks;
      • identify ideas found in collections such as real or virtual art museums, galleries, portfolios, or exhibitions using original artworks created by artists or peers.

Second Grade:

  • §117.108.b.1.A / B
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • compare and contrast variations in objects and subjects from the environment using the senses;
      • identify the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, and space, and the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, and balance.
  • §117.108.b.2. A / B
    • Creative Expression:
      • express ideas and feelings in personal artworks using a variety of lines, shapes, colors, textures, forms, and space;
      • create compositions using the elements of art and principles of design;
  • §117.108.b.3. A / B / C
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      •  interpret stories, content, and meanings in a variety of artworks;
      • examine historical and contemporary artworks created by men and women, making connections to various cultures;
      • analyze how art affects everyday life and is connected to jobs in art and design;
  • §117.108.b.4. A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • support reasons for preferences in personal artworks;
      • compare and contrast ideas found in collections such as real or virtual art museums, galleries, portfolios, or exhibitions using original artworks created by artists or peers;

Third Grade:

  • §117.111.b.1.A / B / C
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • explore ideas from life experiences about self, peers, family, school, or community and from the imagination as sources for original works of art;
      • use appropriate vocabulary when discussing the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, and the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity;
      • discuss the elements of art as building blocks and the principles of design as organizers of works of art.
  • §117.111.b.2. A / B
    • Creative Expression
      • integrate ideas drawn from life experiences to create original works of art;
      • create compositions using the elements of art and principles of design;
  • §117.111.b.3. A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • identify simple main ideas expressed in artworks from various times and places;
      • compare and contrast artworks created by historical and contemporary men and women, making connections to various cultures;
  • §117.111.b.4. A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response
      • evaluate the elements of art, principles of design, or expressive qualities in artworks of self, peers, and historical and contemporary artists;
      • use methods such as oral response or artist statements to identify main ideas found in collections of artworks created by self, peers, and major historical or contemporary artists in real or virtual portfolios, galleries, or art museums;

Fourth Grade:

  • §117.114.b.1.A / B / C
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • explore and communicate ideas drawn from life experiences about self, peers, family, school, or community and from the imagination as sources for original works of art;
      • use appropriate vocabulary when discussing the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, and the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity;
      • discuss the elements of art as building blocks and the principles of design as organizers of works of art.
  • §117.114.b.2. A / B
    • Creative Expression:
      • integrate ideas drawn from life experiences to create original works of art;
      • create compositions using the elements of art and principles of design; and
  • §117.114.b.3. A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • compare content in artworks for various purposes such as the role art plays in reflecting life, expressing emotions, telling stories, or documenting history and traditions;
      •  compare purpose and content in artworks created by historical and contemporary men and women, making connections to various cultures;
  • §117.114.b.4. A / B / C
    • Critical Evaluation and Response
      • evaluate the elements of art, principles of design, intent, or expressive qualities in artworks of self, peers, and historical and contemporary artists.
      • use methods such as written or oral response or artist statements to identify emotions found in collections of artworks created by self, peers, and major historical or contemporary artists in real or virtual portfolios, galleries, or art museums;

Fifth Grade:

  • §117.117.b.1.A / B / C
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • develop and communicate ideas drawn from life experiences about self, peers, family, school, or community and from the imagination as sources for original works of art;
      • use appropriate vocabulary when discussing the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, and the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity; and
      • discuss the elements of art as building blocks and the principles of design as organizers of works of art.
  • §117.117.b.2. A / B / C
    • Creative Expression:
      • integrate ideas drawn from life experiences to create original works of art;
      • create compositions using the elements of art and principles of design;
  • §117.117.b.3. A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • compare the purpose and effectiveness of artworks from various times and places, evaluating the artist’s use of media and techniques, expression of emotions, or use of symbols;
      • compare the purpose and effectiveness of artworks created by historic and contemporary men and women, making connections to various cultures;
  • §117.117.b.4. A / B / C
    • Critical Evaluation and Response
      • evaluate the elements of art, principles of design, general intent, media and techniques, or expressive qualities in artworks of self, peers, or historical and contemporary artists;
      • use methods such as written or oral response or artist statements to identify themes found in collections of artworks created by self, peers, and major historical or contemporary artists in real or virtual portfolios, galleries, or art museums;

Elementary School Art Activities


Questions for Elementary School Students:

  1. Examine Charles Edward Criner’s Woman with Trout. Identify where each element of art is located in the art.
  2. Examine Charles Edward Criner’s Woman with Trout. Identify where each principle of art is located in the art.
  3. What is a lithograph?
  4. How do you make a lithograph?
  5. Why did Charles Criner make an artwork about a fisherwoman?
  6. Why do you think Charles Criner did not show the sky in his print?

Activity: Elementary School Fine Arts

  • Activity Setting: Classroom
  • Materials: white Styrofoam sheets, pencil, drawing paper, ink, ink tray, ink roller
  • Subject: Printmaking, African American History, Genre Scene
  • Texas TEKS: Kindergarten, First Grade, Second Grade, Third Grade, Fourth Grade, and Fifth Grade
  • Duration: 3 Day Project

The students will study Charles Edward Criner’s print Woman with Trout. As they learn about Charles Criner’s art style, the class will learn about the artist’s African American heritage. Specifically, they will learn about Criner’s trip to Africa to study the art, history, and culture of the southern African countries and how this affected his artwork.

After studying the artist, the students will make a Styrofoam print that celebrates their heritage. First, each student will bring an object or a picture to school that represents their culture or heritage. Then, the students will draw on a sheet of paper a sketch of this object or photo and/or what their culture means to them. If the student is unable to bring an object or photo from home, ask the student to draw their favorite holiday.

Once the sketch is finished, and the teacher has approved the drawing, the student will receive a Styrofoam sheet. The Styrofoam can be 4 inches X 6 inches or larger. The students will draw their sketch onto the Styrofoam sheet by pressing their pencil into the sheet. This will create an indention, so when the ink is rolled on top of the plate, the indention will not receive ink and will be printed.

The teacher can help the students roll the ink onto the Styrofoam sheet or choose to the have the students ink their own sheets. The ink will be lightly rolled over the surface of the sheet to avoid getting ink into the indentions. Once ink is rolled onto the Styrofoam, the student will press the Styrofoam sheet ink-side down onto their paper. Then, they will press the sheet onto the paper to ensure the ink is transferred onto the paper. Afterwards, the student will pull the sheet off of the paper and their print will be revealed.

To complete the print, the students will write artist information below the print. In three columns, the students will write the following: Column 1 “The Student’s Name”, Column 2: “The Artwork Title”, and Column 3: “The Number of the Print in the Series (Example 1 of 1)”. If the teacher chooses, the students can make multiple prints from their Styrofoam sheet, creating an edition of prints.


Activity: Elementary School Art History

  • Activity Setting: Classroom
  • Materials: Pencil/ Pen on Paper or Word Document
  • Subject: African American History, Artwork Comparison
  • Texas TEKS: Kindergarten, First Grade, Second Grade, Third Grade, Fourth Grade, and Fifth Grade
  • Duration: 1 Week Project (This will be started after the Print Project is Finished)

After studying Charles Edward Criner’s work Woman with Trout, the students will study his teacher Dr. John Biggers and his art style. Then, the students will write between 1 paragraph to 1 page discussing the similarities and differences found in the two artist’s work.


Middle School Lesson Plans


Goals:

Middle School Students of all Levels will be able to do the following:

  • Identify the principles of design used in the artwork;
  • Identify the elements of design used in the artwork;
  • Learn about Charles Criner’s art style and heritage;
  • And, create a Styrofoam print that celebrates their heritage or history.

Texas Middle School TEKS:

Art 1, Art 2, Art 3


Art 1:

  • §117.202.c.1.A / B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • identify and illustrate concepts from direct observation, original sources, personal experiences, and communities such as family, school, cultural, local, regional, national, and international;
      • understand and apply the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artworks using art vocabulary appropriately;
      • understand and apply the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artworks using art vocabulary appropriately;
      • discuss the expressive properties of artworks such as appropriation, meaning, narrative, message, and symbol using art vocabulary accurately.
  • §117.202.c.1.A
    • Creative Expression:
      • create original artworks based on direct observations, original sources, personal experiences, and the community;
  • §117.202.c.3.A / B / C
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • identify the influence of historical and political events in artworks;
      • identify examples of art that convey universal themes such as beliefs, cultural narrative, life cycles, the passage of time, identity, conflict, and cooperation;
      • explain the relationships that exist between societies and their art and architecture;
  • §117.202.c.4.A / B / D
    • Critical Evaluation and Response
      • create written or oral responses to artwork using appropriate art vocabulary;
      • analyze original artworks using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;
      • investigate and explore original artworks in a variety of venues outside of the classroom such as museums, galleries, or community art;

Art 2:

  • §117.203.b.1.A / B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • identify and illustrate ideas from direct observation, original sources, imagination, personal experiences, and communities such as family, school, cultural, local, regional, national, and international;
      • compare and contrast the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artworks using vocabulary accurately;
      • compare and contrast the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artworks using vocabulary accurately;
      • understand and apply the expressive properties of artworks such as appropriation, meaning, narrative, message, and symbol using art vocabulary accurately.
  • §117.203.b.1.A
    • Creative Expression:
      • create original artworks that express a variety of ideas based on direct observations, original sources, and personal experiences, including memory, identity, imagination, and the community;
  • §117.203.b.3.A / B / C
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • analyze ways that global, cultural, historical, and political issues influence artworks;
      • analyze selected artworks to determine contemporary relevance in relationship to universal themes such as belief, cultural narrative, life cycles, the passage of time, identity, conflict, and cooperation;
      • compare and contrast relationships that exist between a society’s art and its music, literature, and architecture;
  • §117.203.b.4.A / B / D
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • create written or oral responses about personal or collaborative artworks addressing purpose, technique, organization, judgment, and personal expression;
      • analyze original artworks using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;
      • investigate and explore original artworks in a variety of venues outside of the classroom such as museums, galleries, or community art;

Art 3:

  • §117.203.b.1.A / B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • identify and illustrate concepts from direct observation, original sources, imagination, personal experience, and communities such as family, school, cultural, local, regional, national, and international;
      • evaluate the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artworks using vocabulary accurately;
      • evaluate the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artworks using vocabulary accurately;
      • compare and contrast the expressive properties of artworks, including appropriation, meaning, narrative, message, and symbol, using vocabulary accurately.
  • §117.203.b.1.A
    • Creative Expression:
      • create original artworks expressing themes found through direct observation; original sources; personal experiences, including memory, identity, and imagination; and the community;
  • §117.203.b.3.A / B / C
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • analyze ways in which global, contemporary, historical, and political issues have influenced art;
      • analyze cultural ideas expressed in artworks relating to social, political, and environmental themes such as environment/nature, conflict and power, relationships to others, and reality/fantasy;
      • evaluate the relationships that exist among a society’s art, music, theatre, and dance;
  • §117.203.b.4.A / B / D
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • create written and oral responses about personal or collaborative artworks addressing purpose, technique, organization, judgment, and personal expression;
      • analyze original artworks and portfolios using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;
      • understand and demonstrate proper exhibition etiquette.

Middle School Art Activities

Questions for Middle School Students:

  1. Examine Charles Edward Criner’s Woman with Trout. Identify where each element of art is located in the art.
  2. Examine Charles Edward Criner’s Woman with Trout. Identify where each principle of art is located in the art.
  3. What is a lithograph?
  4. How do you make a lithograph?
  5. Why did Charles Criner make an artwork about a fisherwoman?
  6. Why do you think Charles Criner did not show the sky in his print?

Activity: Middle School Fine Arts

  • Activity Setting: Classroom
  • Materials: white Styrofoam sheets, pencil, drawing paper, ink, ink tray, ink roller
  • Subject: Printmaking, African American History, Genre Scene
  • Texas TEKS: Art 1, Art 2, Art 3
  • Duration: 3 Day Project

The students will study Charles Edward Criner’s print Woman with Trout. As they learn about Charles Criner’s art style, the class will learn about the artist’s African American heritage. Specifically, they will learn about Criner’s trip to Africa to study the art, history, and culture of the southern African countries and how this affected his artwork.

After studying the artist, the students will make a Styrofoam print that celebrates their heritage. First, each student will bring an object or a picture to school that represents their culture or heritage. Then, the students will draw on a sheet of paper a sketch of this object or photo and/or what their culture means to them. If the student is unable to bring an object or photo from home, ask the student to draw their favorite holiday.

Once the sketch is finished, and the teacher has approved the drawing, the student will receive a Styrofoam sheet. The Styrofoam can be 4 inches X 6 inches or larger. The students will draw their sketch onto the Styrofoam sheet by pressing their pencil into the sheet. This will create an indention, so when the ink is rolled on top of the plate, the indention will not receive ink and will be printed.

The teacher can help the students roll the ink onto the Styrofoam sheet or choose to the have the students ink their own sheets. The ink will be lightly rolled over the surface of the sheet to avoid getting ink into the indentions. Once ink is rolled onto the Styrofoam, the student will press the Styrofoam sheet ink-side down onto their paper. Then, they will press the sheet onto the paper to ensure the ink is transferred onto the paper. Afterwards, the student will pull the sheet off of the paper and their print will be revealed.

To complete the print, the students will write artist information below the print. In three columns, the students will write the following: Column 1 “The Student’s Name”, Column 2: “The Artwork Title”, and Column 3: “The Number of the Print in the Series (Example 1 of 1)”. If the teacher chooses, the students can make multiple prints from their Styrofoam sheet, creating an edition of prints.


Activity: Middle School Art History

  • Activity Setting: Classroom
  • Materials: Pencil/ Pen on Paper or Word Document
  • Texas TEKS: Art 1, Art 2, Art 3
  • Subject: African American History, Artwork Comparison
  • Duration: 1 Week Project (This will be started after the Print Project is Finished)

After studying Charles Edward Criner’s work Woman with Trout, the students will study his teacher Dr. John Biggers and his art style. Then, the students will write 2 pages discussing the similarities and differences found in the two artist’s work.


High School Lesson Plans


Goals:

High School Students of all Levels will be able to do the following:

  • Identify the principles of design used in the artwork;
  • Identify the elements of design used in the artwork;
  • Learn about Charles Criner’s art style and heritage;
  • And, create a Styrofoam print that celebrates their heritage or history.

Texas High School TEKS:

Art Level I, Level II, Level III, and Level IV


Level I:

  • §117.302.c.1.A / B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • consider concepts and ideas from direct observation, original sources, experiences, and imagination for original artwork;
      • identify and understand the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artwork;
      • identify and understand the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artwork;
      • make judgments about the expressive properties such as content, meaning, message, and metaphor of artwork using art vocabulary accurately.
  • §117.302.c.2.A / D
    • Creative Expression:
      • use visual solutions to create original artwork by problem solving through direct observation, original sources, experiences, narrations, and imagination;
      • create original artwork to communicate thoughts, feelings, ideas, or impressions;
  • §117.302.c.3.A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance
      • compare and contrast historical and contemporary styles while identifying general themes and trends;
      • describe general characteristics in artwork from a variety of cultures, which might also include personal identity and heritage;
  • §117.302.c.4.A / B / D
    • Critical Evaluation and Response
      • interpret, evaluate, and justify artistic decisions in artwork by self, peers, and other artists such as that in museums, local galleries, art exhibits, and websites;
      • evaluate and analyze artwork using a verbal or written method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;
      • select and analyze original artwork, portfolios, and exhibitions to form precise conclusions about formal qualities, historical and cultural contexts, intentions, and meanings.

Level II:

  • §117.303.c.1.A / B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • use visual comparisons to illustrate concepts and ideas from direct observation, original sources, experiences, narration, and imagination for original artworks;
      • identify and apply the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artworks;
      •  identify and apply the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity in personal artworks;
      • explore suitability of art media and processes to express specific ideas such as content, meaning, message, appropriation, and metaphor relating to visual themes of artworks using art vocabulary accurately.
  • §117.303.c.2.A / D
    • Creative Expression:
      • create original artwork using multiple solutions from direct observation, original sources, experiences, and imagination in order to expand personal themes that demonstrate artistic intent;
      •  create original artwork to communicate thoughts, feelings, ideas, or impressions;
  • §117.303.c.3.A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • examine selected historical periods or styles of art to identify general themes and trends;
      • analyze specific characteristics in artwork from a variety of cultures;
  • §117.303.c.4.A / B / C / E
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • interpret, evaluate, and justify artistic decisions in artwork by self, peers, and other artists such as that in museums, local galleries, art exhibits, and websites;
      • evaluate and analyze artwork using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;
      • use responses to artwork critiques to make decisions about future directions in personal work;
      • select and analyze original artwork, portfolios, and exhibitions to form precise conclusions about formal qualities, historical and cultural contexts, intentions, and meanings.

Level III:

  • §117.304.c.1.A / B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • analyze visual characteristics of sources to illustrate concepts, demonstrate flexibility in solving problems, create multiple solutions, and think imaginatively;
      • compare and contrast the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artwork;
      • compare and contrast the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artwork;
      • explore the suitability of art media and processes and select those appropriate to express specific ideas such as content, meaning, message, and metaphor relating to visual themes to interpret the expressive qualities of artwork.
  • §117.304.c.2.A / D
    • Creative Expression:
      • create original artwork using multiple solutions from direct observation, original sources, experiences, and imagination in order to expand personal themes that demonstrate artistic intent;
      • create original artwork to communicate thoughts, feelings, ideas, or impressions;
  • §117.304.c.3.A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • research selected historical periods, artists, general themes, trends, and styles of art;
      • distinguish the correlation between specific characteristics and influences of various cultures and contemporary artwork;
  • §117.304.c.4.A / B / C / E / F
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • interpret, evaluate, and justify artistic decisions in artwork such as that in museums, local galleries, art exhibits, and websites based on evaluation of developmental progress, competency in problem solving, and a variety of visual ideas;
      • evaluate and analyze artwork using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;
      • analyze personal artwork in order to create a written response such as an artist’s statement reflecting intent, inspiration, the elements of art and principles of design within the artwork, and measure of uniqueness;
      • construct a physical or electronic portfolio by evaluating and analyzing personal original artwork to provide evidence of learning; 
      • select and analyze original artwork, portfolios, and exhibitions to demonstrate innovation and provide examples of in-depth exploration of qualities such as aesthetics; formal, historical, and cultural contexts; intentions; and meanings.

Level IV:

  • §117.305.c.1.A / B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • consider concepts and themes for personal artwork that integrate an extensive range of visual observations, experiences, and imagination;
      • compare and contrast the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artwork;
      • compare and contrast the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artwork;
      • discriminate between art media and processes to express complex visual relationships such as content, meaning, message, and metaphor using extensive art vocabulary.
  • §117.305.c.2.A / D
    • Creative Expression:
      • produce an original body of artwork that integrates information from a variety of sources, including original sources, and demonstrates sustained self-directed investigations into specific themes such as a series or concentration of works;
      • create original artwork to communicate thoughts, feelings, ideas, or impressions;
  • §117.305.c.3.A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • research and report on selected historical periods, artists, general themes, trends, and styles of art;
      • analyze and evaluate the influence of contemporary cultures on artwork;
  • §117.305.c.4.A / B / C / E / F
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • develop evaluative criteria to justify artistic decisions in artwork such as that in museums, local galleries, art exhibits, and websites based on a high level of creativity and expertise in one or more art areas;
      • evaluate and analyze artwork using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;
      • analyze personal artwork in order to create a written response such as an artist’s statement reflecting intent, inspiration, the elements of art and principles of design within the artwork, and the measure of uniqueness;
      • construct a physical or electronic portfolio by evaluating and analyzing personal original artwork to provide evidence of learning;
      • evaluate a wide range of artwork to form conclusions about formal qualities, aesthetics, historical and cultural contexts, intents, and meanings.

High School Art Activities


Questions for High School Students:

  1. Examine Charles Edward Criner’s Woman with Trout. Identify where each element of art is located in the art.
  2. Examine Charles Edward Criner’s Woman with Trout. Identify where each principle of art is located in the art.
  3. What is a lithograph?
  4. How do you make a lithograph?
  5. Why did Charles Criner make an artwork about a fisherwoman?
  6. Why do you think Charles Criner did not show the sky in his print?

Activity: High School Fine Arts

  • Activity Setting: Classroom and/or outdoor location
  • Materials: white Styrofoam sheets, pencil, drawing paper, ink, ink tray, ink roller
  • Subject: Printmaking, African American History, Genre Scene
  • Texas TEKS: Art Level I, Level II, Level III, and Level IV
  • Duration: 3 Day Project

The students will study Charles Edward Criner’s print Woman with Trout. As they learn about Charles Criner’s art style, the class will learn about the artist’s African American heritage. Specifically, they will learn about Criner’s trip to Africa to study the art, history, and culture of the southern African countries and how this affected his artwork.

After studying the artist, the students will make a Styrofoam print that celebrates their heritage. First, each student will bring an object or a picture to school that represents their culture or heritage. Then, the students will draw on a sheet of paper a sketch of this object or photo and/or what their culture means to them. If the student is unable to bring an object or photo from home, ask the student to draw their favorite holiday.

Once the sketch is finished, and the teacher has approved the drawing, the student will receive a Styrofoam sheet. The Styrofoam can be 4 inches X 6 inches or larger. The students will draw their sketch onto the Styrofoam sheet by pressing their pencil into the sheet. This will create an indention, so when the ink is rolled on top of the plate, the indention will not receive ink and will be printed.

The teacher can help the students roll the ink onto the Styrofoam sheet or choose to the have the students ink their own sheets. The ink will be lightly rolled over the surface of the sheet to avoid getting ink into the indentions. Once ink is rolled onto the Styrofoam, the student will press the Styrofoam sheet ink-side down onto their paper. Then, they will press the sheet onto the paper to ensure the ink is transferred onto the paper. Afterwards, the student will pull the sheet off of the paper and their print will be revealed.

To complete the print, the students will write artist information below the print. In three columns, the students will write the following: Column 1 “The Student’s Name”, Column 2: “The Artwork Title”, and Column 3: “The Number of the Print in the Series (Example 1 of 1)”. If the teacher chooses, the students can make multiple prints from their Styrofoam sheet, creating an edition of prints.


Activity: High School Art History

  • Activity Setting: Classroom
  • Materials: Pencil/ Pen on Paper or Word Document
  • Texas TEKS: Art Level I, Level II, Level III, and Level IV
  • Subject: African American History, Artwork Comparison
  • Duration: 1 Week Project (This will be started after the Print Project is Finished)

After studying Charles Edward Criner’s work Woman with Trout, the students will study his teacher Dr. John Biggers and his art style. Then, the students will write 2 – 4 pages discussing the similarities and differences found in the two artist’s work.


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