Lesson Plan: Otis Lumpkin’s “The Yellow Fireplug”

(Otis Lumpkin, The Yellow Fireplug, 1963, oil on canvas, 20 inches X 24 inches, Tyler Museum of Art, Tyler, Texas.)

This lesson plan contains the Texas TEKS for Elementary, Middle, and High School art teachers. The lesson discusses the use of figures and architecture to create a specific mood.

If you use or reference this lesson plan, please leave a comment with your feedback. The lesson plan can be downloaded in the link below.


Culture: American

Subject: Fines Arts, Art History

Collection: Tyler Museum of Art Permanent Collection

Grades: Elementary School, Middle School and High School

Topics: Artistic Practices, Art History, Critical Thinking


Art Vocabulary


Activity Vocabulary:

Realism:

  • Developing in the middle of the nineteenth century, Realist artists did not paint idealized figures nor classical history scenes. Instead, the artists painted living people and highlighted the social injustices that occurred between the wealthy and the poor individuals. The figures are rendered in a near-photographic manner.

Texas Realism:

  • Texas Realism maintains similar aspects of the Realism art movement. Texas Realists sought to capture the broad expanses, metropolitan areas, and the individuals who inhabit both regions. The compositions maintain a near-photographic manner. Texas Realism focuses on figures and their relationship to their surroundings to elevate a specific mood. The mood can be melancholy, joy, inquisitiveness, or highlighting social differences.

Edward Hopper:

  • Edward Hopper was an American Realist. He was born in 1882 and died in 1967. His mature painting style depicts figures lost in thought and uses the architecture to emphasize the constrained and lonely mood. This is clearly seen in Hopper’s painting Nighthawks, found at the Art Institute in Chicago, and Hopper’s painting Early Sunday Morning, located at the Whitney Museum of American Art.

Otis Lumpkin:

  • Otis Lumpkin was a Texas Realist. He was born in 1924 and died in 2012. Inspired by Hopper’s style, Lumpkin portrayed various figures and their emotional connection to urban and rural spaces. His dulled colors cause the viewer to focus on the spatial arrangement of the painting and examine how the architecture frames and confines the figures. His work, The Yellow Fireplug, was influenced by Hopper’s painting Early Sunday Morning.

Oil Paint:

  • Oil paint is developed from suspending vibrant pigments in a slow-drying oil. Due to the chemical makeup of the medium, the artist can create thin layers that dry like a glaze or thick opaque layers that create tangible texture on the canvas.

Mood:

  • Mood is defined as the emotional tonality of a composition. The artist can use vibrant colors and a bright subject matter to create a cheerful mood. Likewise, the artist can apply dull pigments and a sorrowful image to develop a melancholy mood.

Elements of Design:

  • Artists use the elements of design to create the foundation of the artwork. The elements of art include: line, shape, form, space, color, and texture.

Line:

  • An element of design; line is created on a surface with a pointed moving tool. Lines can range in size, width, texture, and presentation. Common types of line are vertical, horizontal, diagonal, zig-zag, and curved.

Shape:

  • An element of design; shape is a two-dimensional enclosed space that represents either an organic shape or a geometric shape. Geometric shapes include squares, circles, rectangles, triangles and other standard geometric shapes. Organic shapes include natural non-geometric shapes that are developed from curvilinear lines.

Form:

  • An element of design; form is a three-dimensional enclosed space that represents organic and geometric shapes in a third space. Geometric forms include cubes, spheres, triangular prisms, rectangular prisms, and cones. Organic shapes include three-dimensional forms observed in nature, such as trees, rivers, and rocks.

Space:

  • An element of design; this term defines the surface area between, before, and behind an object in a composition.

Color:

  • An element of design; this term defines the pigments used in a painting. Color can be organized into categories, such as: hues, values, complements, and intensity.

Texture:

  • An element of design; this term defines an artwork’s surface. The artist’s use of the chosen medium creates either implied or actual texture.

Principles of Design:

  • Artists used principles of design to build upon the foundational elements of design. This includes the following: rhythm, movement, balance, proportion, variety, emphasis, and unity. 

Rhythm/ Pattern:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the repetitive imagery and elements of design found in a composition.

Movement:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the visual movement observed in a painting. This can be identified as kinetic movement or implied movement. Additionally, movement can be defined as how the viewer’s eye moves throughout the composition.

Balance:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the arrangement of the presented imagery with the elements of design. It refers to either asymmetrical compositions or symmetrical compositions.

Proportion:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the comparative size between objects in the composition. It can refer to the imagery within a painting or the size between a sculpture and a real object.

Variety:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the combination of imagery, objects, and ideas in an artwork.

Emphasis:

  • A principle of design; this term defines the most prominent area in a composition. The viewer’s eye is drawn to this point because the artist used a mixture of the elements and principles of design.

Unity:

  • A principle of design; this term defines how the elements and principles of design are combined within a composition.

Resources for Vocabulary:

“Art Term: Oil Paint.” Tate Modern Museum. Updated 2021. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/o/oil-paint

“Art Term: Realism.” Tate Modern Museum. Updated 2021. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/r/realism

Cox, JoBeth. “Object Record: The Yellow Fireplug.” Tyler Museum of Art. Updated 2021. Accessed August 18, 2021. https://tylermuseum.pastperfectonline.com/webobject/FCC6E537-9376-4AC3-A937-085618204300

Murphy, Jessica. “Edward Hopper (1882 – 1967).” The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Updated: June 2007. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/hopp/hd_hopp.htm

“Nighthawks, 1942, Edward Hopper.” Art Institute in Chicago. Updated 2021. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://www.artic.edu/artworks/111628/nighthawks

Ragan, Rosalins. “Elements of Art.” In Art Talk, 61 – 211. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Francisco: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

Ragan, Rosalins. “The Principles of Design.” In Art Talk, 211 – 347. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Francisco: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

Reece-Hughes, Shirley. “Everett Spruce: ‘A Deeper Realism’.” Texas Made Modern. Edited by Andrew J. Walker. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2020. https://www.google.com/books/edition/Texas_Made_Modern/Gkj_DwAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1

“Works: Edward Hopper, Early Sunday Morning.” Whitney Museum of American Art. Updated 2021. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://whitney.org/collection/works/46345

Elementary School Lesson Plans


Goals:

Elementary School Students of all Levels will be able to do the following:

  • Identify the principles of design used in the artwork;
  • Identify the elements of design used in the artwork;
  • Identify Texas Realism in Otis Lumpkin’s painting The Yellow Fireplug.
  • Create a piece that expresses a specific mood using architecture, figures, and color.

Texas Elementary School TEKS:

Kindergarten, First Grade, Second Grade, Third Grade, Fourth Grade, and Fifth Grade


Kindergarten:

  • §117.102.b.1.A / B
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • gather information from subjects in the environment using the senses;
      • identify the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, and form, and the principles of design, including repetition/pattern and balance, in the environment.
  • §117.102.b.2. A
    • Creative Expression:
      • create artworks using a variety of lines, shapes, colors, textures, and forms;
  • §117.102.b.3. B / C
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • share ideas about personal experiences such as family and friends and develop awareness and sensitivity to differing experiences and opinions through artwork;
      • identify the uses of art in everyday life;
  • §117.102.b.4.B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • express ideas found in collections such as real or virtual art museums, galleries, portfolios, or exhibitions using original artworks created by artists or peers;

First Grade:

  • §117.105.b.1.A / B
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • identify similarities, differences, and variations among subjects in the environment using the senses;
      • identify the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, and form, and the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, and balance, in nature and human-made environments.
  • §117.105.b.2. A / B
    • Creative Expression:
      • invent images that combine a variety of lines, shapes, colors, textures, and forms;
      • place components in orderly arrangements to create designs;
  • §117.105.b.3. A / C
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • identify simple ideas expressed in artworks through different media;
      • discuss the use of art in everyday life;
  • §117.105.b.4.A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • explain ideas about personal artworks;
      • identify ideas found in collections such as real or virtual art museums, galleries, portfolios, or exhibitions using original artworks created by artists or peers.

Second Grade:

  • §117.108.b.1.A / B
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • compare and contrast variations in objects and subjects from the environment using the senses;
      • identify the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, and space, and the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, and balance.
  • §117.108.b.2. A / B
    • Creative Expression:
      • express ideas and feelings in personal artworks using a variety of lines, shapes, colors, textures, forms, and space;
      • create compositions using the elements of art and principles of design;
  • §117.108.b.3. B / C
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • examine historical and contemporary artworks created by men and women, making connections to various cultures;
      • analyze how art affects everyday life and is connected to jobs in art and design;
  • §117.108.b.4. A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • support reasons for preferences in personal artworks;
      • compare and contrast ideas found in collections such as real or virtual art museums, galleries, portfolios, or exhibitions using original artworks created by artists or peers;

Third Grade:

  • §117.111.b.1. B / C
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • use appropriate vocabulary when discussing the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, and the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity;
      • discuss the elements of art as building blocks and the principles of design as organizers of works of art.
  • §117.111.b.2. B / C
    • Creative Expression
      • create compositions using the elements of art and principles of design;
      • produce drawings; paintings; prints; sculpture, including modeled forms; and other art forms such as ceramics, fiber art, constructions, mixed media, installation art, digital art and media, and photographic imagery using a variety of materials.
  • §117.111.b.3. A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • identify simple main ideas expressed in artworks from various times and places;
      • compare and contrast artworks created by historical and contemporary men and women, making connections to various cultures;
  • §117.111.b.4. A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response
      • evaluate the elements of art, principles of design, or expressive qualities in artworks of self, peers, and historical and contemporary artists;
      • use methods such as oral response or artist statements to identify main ideas found in collections of artworks created by self, peers, and major historical or contemporary artists in real or virtual portfolios, galleries, or art museums;

Fourth Grade:

  • §117.114.b.1. B / C
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • use appropriate vocabulary when discussing the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, and the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity;
      • discuss the elements of art as building blocks and the principles of design as organizers of works of art.
  • §117.114.b.2. B / C
    • Creative Expression:
      • create compositions using the elements of art and principles of design; and
      • produce drawings; paintings; prints; sculpture, including modeled forms; and other art forms such as ceramics, fiber art, constructions, mixed media, installation art, digital art and media, and photographic imagery using a variety of art media and materials.
  • §117.114.b.3. A / B  
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • compare content in artworks for various purposes such as the role art plays in reflecting life, expressing emotions, telling stories, or documenting history and traditions;
      •  compare purpose and content in artworks created by historical and contemporary men and women, making connections to various cultures;
  • §117.114.b.4. A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response
      • evaluate the elements of art, principles of design, intent, or expressive qualities in artworks of self, peers, and historical and contemporary artists.
      • use methods such as written or oral response or artist statements to identify emotions found in collections of artworks created by self, peers, and major historical or contemporary artists in real or virtual portfolios, galleries, or art museums;

Fifth Grade:

  • §117.117.b.1.B / C
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • use appropriate vocabulary when discussing the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, and the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity; and
      • discuss the elements of art as building blocks and the principles of design as organizers of works of art.
  • §117.117.b.2. B / C
    • Creative Expression:
      • create compositions using the elements of art and principles of design;
      • produce drawings; paintings; prints; sculpture, including modeled forms; and other art forms such as ceramics, fiber art, constructions, digital art and media, and photographic imagery using a variety of materials.
  • §117.117.b.3. A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • compare the purpose and effectiveness of artworks from various times and places, evaluating the artist’s use of media and techniques, expression of emotions, or use of symbols;
      • compare the purpose and effectiveness of artworks created by historic and contemporary men and women, making connections to various cultures;
  • §117.117.b.4. A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response
      • evaluate the elements of art, principles of design, general intent, media and techniques, or expressive qualities in artworks of self, peers, or historical and contemporary artists;
      • use methods such as written or oral response or artist statements to identify themes found in collections of artworks created by self, peers, and major historical or contemporary artists in real or virtual portfolios, galleries, or art museums;

Elementary School Art Activities


Questions for Elementary School Students:

  1. Examine Otis Lumpkin’s painting The Yellow Fireplug. Identify the elements of design in the painting.
  2. Examine Otis Lumpkin’s painting The Yellow Fireplug. Identify the principles of design in the painting.
  3. Examine Otis Lumpkin’s painting The Yellow Fireplug. Compare and contrast Lumpkin’s painting to Edward Hopper’s painting Early Sunday Morning.
    1. The link to Hopper’s painting is here:
    1. The link to Lumpkin’s painting is here:

Activity: Elementary School Fine Arts

  • Activity Setting: Classroom
  • Materials: Coloring Pencils, Drawing Paper, Photograph as a Reference
  • Subject: Color, Drawings, Photography
  • Texas TEKS: Kindergarten, First Grade, Second Grade, Third Grade, Fourth Grade, and Fifth Grade
  • Duration: Single Day Project or an Extended Project

The students will take a photo of a friend or family member standing in front of a building in their town. If the students do not have access to phones, the teacher can select an architectural photo to use for the project. The photo will place a larger focus on the building and less on the figure. Using the photo as a reference, the student will draw the image onto drawing paper. Then, they will use coloring pencils to color the piece. The goal is to create a piece that presents a specific mood to the viewer. It can be melancholy, happiness, nostalgia, etc. Once the piece is done, the student will write a 1 or 2 page artist statement discussing how they used color and/or photography to develop this mood.


Activity: Elementary School Art History

  • Activity Setting: Classroom
  • Materials: Pencil/ Pen on Paper or Word Document
  • Subject: Research, Artwork Analysis
  • Texas TEKS: Kindergarten, First Grade, Second Grade, Third Grade, Fourth Grade, and Fifth Grade
  • Duration: Single Day Assignment or a Research Paper

Examine Otis Lumpkin’s painting The Yellow Fireplug. Afterwards, in a 1 – 2 page paper, discuss Lumpkin’s use of Texas Realism in his painting. Define Texas Realism, then, examine how Lumpkin expressed these attributes in The Yellow Fireplug. Students must create a bibliography and cite their sources.


Resources:

“Art Term: Oil Paint.” Tate Modern Museum. Updated 2021. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/o/oil-paint

“Art Term: Realism.” Tate Modern Museum. Updated 2021. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/r/realism

Cox, JoBeth. “Object Record: The Yellow Fireplug.” Tyler Museum of Art. Updated 2021. Accessed August 18, 2021. https://tylermuseum.pastperfectonline.com/webobject/FCC6E537-9376-4AC3-A937-085618204300

Murphy, Jessica. “Edward Hopper (1882 – 1967).” The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Updated: June 2007. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/hopp/hd_hopp.htm

“Nighthawks, 1942, Edward Hopper.” Art Institute in Chicago. Updated 2021. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://www.artic.edu/artworks/111628/nighthawks

Ragan, Rosalins. “Elements of Art.” In Art Talk, 61 – 211. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Francisco: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

Ragan, Rosalins. “The Principles of Design.” In Art Talk, 211 – 347. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Francisco: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

Reece-Hughes, Shirley. “Everett Spruce: ‘A Deeper Realism’.” Texas Made Modern. Edited by Andrew J. Walker. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2020. https://www.google.com/books/edition/Texas_Made_Modern/Gkj_DwAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1

“Works: Edward Hopper, Early Sunday Morning.” Whitney Museum of American Art. Updated 2021. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://whitney.org/collection/works/46345

Middle School Lesson Plans


Goals:

Middle School Students of all Levels will be able to do the following:

  • Identify the Principles of Design used in the artwork;
  • Identify the Elements of Design used in the artwork;
  • Identify the Art Historical significance of the artwork;
  • Identify Texas Realism in Otis Lumpkin’s painting The Yellow Fireplug.
  • Create a piece that expresses a specific mood using architecture, figures, and color.

Texas Middle School TEKS:

Art 1, Art 2, Art 3


Art 1:

  • §117.202.c.1. B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • understand and apply the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artworks using art vocabulary appropriately;
      • understand and apply the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artworks using art vocabulary appropriately;
      • discuss the expressive properties of artworks such as appropriation, meaning, narrative, message, and symbol using art vocabulary accurately.
  • §117.202.c.1.A / C
    • Creative Expression:
      • create original artworks based on direct observations, original sources, personal experiences, and the community;
      • produce artworks, including drawings, paintings, prints, sculptures/modeled forms, ceramics, fiber art, photographic imagery, and digital art and media, using a variety of materials.
  • §117.202.c.3. B / C
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • identify examples of art that convey universal themes such as beliefs, cultural narrative, life cycles, the passage of time, identity, conflict, and cooperation;
      • explain the relationships that exist between societies and their art and architecture;
  • §117.202.c.4.A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response
      • create written or oral responses to artwork using appropriate art vocabulary;
      • analyze original artworks using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;

Art 2:

  • §117.203.b.1.B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • compare and contrast the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artworks using vocabulary accurately;
      • compare and contrast the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artworks using vocabulary accurately;
      • understand and apply the expressive properties of artworks such as appropriation, meaning, narrative, message, and symbol using art vocabulary accurately.
  • §117.203.b.1.A / C
    • Creative Expression:
      • create original artworks that express a variety of ideas based on direct observations, original sources, and personal experiences, including memory, identity, imagination, and the community;
      • apply technical skills effectively using a variety of materials to produce artworks, including drawings, paintings, prints, sculptures/modeled forms, ceramics, fiber art, photographic imagery, and digital art and media;
  • §117.203.b.3.B / C
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • analyze selected artworks to determine contemporary relevance in relationship to universal themes such as belief, cultural narrative, life cycles, the passage of time, identity, conflict, and cooperation;
      • compare and contrast relationships that exist between a society’s art and its music, literature, and architecture;
  • §117.203.b.4.A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • create written or oral responses about personal or collaborative artworks addressing purpose, technique, organization, judgment, and personal expression;
      • analyze original artworks using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;

Art 3:

  • §117.203.b.1.B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • evaluate the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artworks using vocabulary accurately;
      • evaluate the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artworks using vocabulary accurately;
      • compare and contrast the expressive properties of artworks, including appropriation, meaning, narrative, message, and symbol, using vocabulary accurately.
  • §117.203.b.1.A / C
    • Creative Expression:
      • create original artworks expressing themes found through direct observation; original sources; personal experiences, including memory, identity, and imagination; and the community;
      • create artworks by selecting appropriate art materials, including drawings, paintings, prints, sculptures/modeled forms, ceramics, fiber art, photographic imagery, and digital art and media;
  • §117.203.b.3.B / C
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • analyze cultural ideas expressed in artworks relating to social, political, and environmental themes such as environment/nature, conflict and power, relationships to others, and reality/fantasy;
      • evaluate the relationships that exist among a society’s art, music, theatre, and dance;
  • §117.203.b.4.A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • create written and oral responses about personal or collaborative artworks addressing purpose, technique, organization, judgment, and personal expression;
      • analyze original artworks and portfolios using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;

Middle School Art Activities


Questions for Middle School Students:

  1. Examine Otis Lumpkin’s painting The Yellow Fireplug. Identify the elements of design in the painting.
  2. Examine Otis Lumpkin’s painting The Yellow Fireplug. Identify the principles of design in the painting.
  3. Examine Otis Lumpkin’s painting The Yellow Fireplug. Compare and contrast Lumpkin’s painting to Edward Hopper’s Early Sunday Morning.
    1. The link to Hopper’s painting is here:
    2. The link to Lumpkin’s painting is here:

Activity: Middle School Fine Arts

  • Activity Setting: Classroom
  • Materials: Coloring Pencils, Drawing Paper, Photograph as a Reference
  • Subject: Color, Drawings, Photography
  • Texas TEKS: Art 1, Art 2, Art 3
  • Duration: Single Day Project or an Extended Project

The students will take a photo of a friend or family member standing in front of a building in their town. They will arrange the photo to place a larger focus on the building and less on the figure. Using the photo as a reference, the student will draw the image onto drawing paper. Then, they will use coloring pencils to color the piece. The goal is to create a piece that presents a specific mood to the viewer. It can be melancholy, happiness, nostalgia, etc. Once the piece is done, the student will write a 1 – 2 page artist statement discussing how they used color and photography to develop this mood.


Activity: Middle School Art History

  • Activity Setting: Classroom
  • Materials: Pencil/ Pen on Paper or Word Document
  • Subject: Research, Artwork Analysis
  • Texas TEKS: Art 1, Art 2, Art 3
  • Duration: Single Day Assignment or a Research Paper

Examine Otis Lumpkin’s painting The Yellow Fireplug. Afterwards, in a 2 – 3 page paper, discuss Lumpkin’s use of Texas Realism in his painting. Define Texas Realism, then, examine how Lumpkin expressed these attributes in The Yellow Fireplug. Students must create a bibliography and cite their sources.


Resources:

“Art Term: Oil Paint.” Tate Modern Museum. Updated 2021. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/o/oil-paint

“Art Term: Realism.” Tate Modern Museum. Updated 2021. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/r/realism

Cox, JoBeth. “Object Record: The Yellow Fireplug.” Tyler Museum of Art. Updated 2021. Accessed August 18, 2021. https://tylermuseum.pastperfectonline.com/webobject/FCC6E537-9376-4AC3-A937-085618204300

Murphy, Jessica. “Edward Hopper (1882 – 1967).” The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Updated: June 2007. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/hopp/hd_hopp.htm

“Nighthawks, 1942, Edward Hopper.” Art Institute in Chicago. Updated 2021. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://www.artic.edu/artworks/111628/nighthawks

Ragan, Rosalins. “Elements of Art.” In Art Talk, 61 – 211. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Francisco: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

Ragan, Rosalins. “The Principles of Design.” In Art Talk, 211 – 347. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Francisco: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

Reece-Hughes, Shirley. “Everett Spruce: ‘A Deeper Realism’.” Texas Made Modern. Edited by Andrew J. Walker. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2020. https://www.google.com/books/edition/Texas_Made_Modern/Gkj_DwAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1

“Works: Edward Hopper, Early Sunday Morning.” Whitney Museum of American Art. Updated 2021. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://whitney.org/collection/works/46345

High School Lesson Plans


Goals:

High School Students of all Levels will be able to do the following:

  • Identify the Principles of Design used in the artwork;
  • Identify the Elements of Design used in the artwork;
  • Identify the Art Historical significance of the artwork;
  • Identify Texas Realism in Otis Lumpkin’s painting The Yellow Fireplug.
  • Create a piece that expresses a specific mood using architecture, figures, and color.

Texas High School TEKS:

Art Level I, Level II, Level III, and Level IV


Level I:

  • §117.302.c.1.B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • identify and understand the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artwork;
      • identify and understand the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artwork;
      • make judgments about the expressive properties such as content, meaning, message, and metaphor of artwork using art vocabulary accurately.
  • §117.302.c.2.A / D / F
    • Creative Expression:
      • use visual solutions to create original artwork by problem solving through direct observation, original sources, experiences, narrations, and imagination;
      • create original artwork to communicate thoughts, feelings, ideas, or impressions;
      • demonstrate effective use of art media and tools in drawing, painting, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics, fiber art, design, and digital art and media.
  • §117.302.c.3.A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance
      • compare and contrast historical and contemporary styles while identifying general themes and trends;
      • describe general characteristics in artwork from a variety of cultures, which might also include personal identity and heritage;
  • §117.302.c.4.A / B
    • Critical Evaluation and Response
      • interpret, evaluate, and justify artistic decisions in artwork by self, peers, and other artists such as that in museums, local galleries, art exhibits, and websites;
      • evaluate and analyze artwork using a verbal or written method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;

Level II:

  • §117.303.c.1.B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • identify and apply the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artworks;
      •  identify and apply the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity in personal artworks;
      • explore suitability of art media and processes to express specific ideas such as content, meaning, message, appropriation, and metaphor relating to visual themes of artworks using art vocabulary accurately.
  • §117.303.c.2.A / D / F
    • Creative Expression:
      • create original artwork using multiple solutions from direct observation, original sources, experiences, and imagination in order to expand personal themes that demonstrate artistic intent;
      •  create original artwork to communicate thoughts, feelings, ideas, or impressions;
      • select from a variety of art media and tools to communicate specific ideas in drawing, painting, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics, fiber art, jewelry, mixed media, photography, and digital art and media.
  • §117.303.c.3.A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • examine selected historical periods or styles of art to identify general themes and trends;
      • analyze specific characteristics in artwork from a variety of cultures;
  • §117.303.c.4.A / B / C
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • interpret, evaluate, and justify artistic decisions in artwork by self, peers, and other artists such as that in museums, local galleries, art exhibits, and websites;
      • evaluate and analyze artwork using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;
      • use responses to artwork critiques to make decisions about future directions in personal work;

Level III:

  • §117.304.c.1.B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • compare and contrast the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artwork;
      • compare and contrast the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artwork;
      • explore the suitability of art media and processes and select those appropriate to express specific ideas such as content, meaning, message, and metaphor relating to visual themes to interpret the expressive qualities of artwork.
  • §117.304.c.2.A / D / F
    • Creative Expression:
      • create original artwork using multiple solutions from direct observation, original sources, experiences, and imagination in order to expand personal themes that demonstrate artistic intent;
      • create original artwork to communicate thoughts, feelings, ideas, or impressions;
      • select from a variety of art media and tools to express intent in drawing, painting, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics, fiber art, design, digital art and media, photography, jewelry, and mixed media.
  • §117.304.c.3.A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • research selected historical periods, artists, general themes, trends, and styles of art;
      • distinguish the correlation between specific characteristics and influences of various cultures and contemporary artwork;
  • §117.304.c.4.A / B / C / D
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • interpret, evaluate, and justify artistic decisions in artwork such as that in museums, local galleries, art exhibits, and websites based on evaluation of developmental progress, competency in problem solving, and a variety of visual ideas;
      • evaluate and analyze artwork using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;
      • analyze personal artwork in order to create a written response such as an artist’s statement reflecting intent, inspiration, the elements of art and principles of design within the artwork, and measure of uniqueness;
      • use responses to artwork critiques to make decisions about future directions in personal work;

Level IV:

  • §117.305.c.1.B / C / D
    • Foundations: Observation and Perception:
      • compare and contrast the elements of art, including line, shape, color, texture, form, space, and value, as the fundamentals of art in personal artwork;
      • compare and contrast the principles of design, including emphasis, repetition/pattern, movement/rhythm, contrast/variety, balance, proportion, and unity, in personal artwork;
      • discriminate between art media and processes to express complex visual relationships such as content, meaning, message, and metaphor using extensive art vocabulary.
  • §117.305.c.2.A / D / F
    • Creative Expression:
      • produce an original body of artwork that integrates information from a variety of sources, including original sources, and demonstrates sustained self-directed investigations into specific themes such as a series or concentration of works;
      • create original artwork to communicate thoughts, feelings, ideas, or impressions;
      • create artwork, singularly and in a series, by selecting from a variety of art materials and tools appropriate to course work in drawing, painting, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics, fiber art, design, digital art and media, photography, jewelry, and mixed media.
  • §117.305.c.3.A / B
    • Historical and Cultural Relevance:
      • research and report on selected historical periods, artists, general themes, trends, and styles of art;
      • analyze and evaluate the influence of contemporary cultures on artwork;
  • §117.305.c.4.A / B / C / D
    • Critical Evaluation and Response:
      • develop evaluative criteria to justify artistic decisions in artwork such as that in museums, local galleries, art exhibits, and websites based on a high level of creativity and expertise in one or more art areas;
      • evaluate and analyze artwork using a method of critique such as describing the artwork, analyzing the way it is organized, interpreting the artist’s intention, and evaluating the success of the artwork;
      • analyze personal artwork in order to create a written response such as an artist’s statement reflecting intent, inspiration, the elements of art and principles of design within the artwork, and the measure of uniqueness;
      • use responses to artwork critiques to make decisions about future directions in personal work;

High School Art Activities


Questions for High School Students:

  1. Examine Otis Lumpkin’s painting The Yellow Fireplug. Identify the elements of design in the painting.
  2. Examine Otis Lumpkin’s painting The Yellow Fireplug. Identify the principles of design in the painting.
  3. Examine Otis Lumpkin’s painting The Yellow Fireplug. Compare and contrast Lumpkin’s painting to Edward Hopper’s Early Sunday Morning.
    1. The link to Hopper’s painting is here:
    1. The link to Lumpkin’s painting is here:

Activity: High School Fine Arts

  • Activity Setting: Classroom and/or outdoor location
  • Materials: Coloring Pencils, Drawing Paper, Photograph as a Reference
  • Subject: Color, Drawings, Photography
  • Texas TEKS: Art Level I, Level II, Level III, and Level IV
  • Duration: Single Day Project or an Extended Project

The students will take a photo of a friend or family member standing in front of a building in their town. They will arrange the photo to place a larger focus on the building and less on the figure. Using the photo as a reference, the student will draw the image onto drawing paper. Then, they will use coloring pencils to color the piece. The goal is to create a piece that presents a specific mood to the viewer. It can be melancholy, happiness, nostalgia, etc. Once the piece is done, the student will write a 2 – 3 page artist statement discussing how they used color and photography to develop this mood.


Activity: High School Art History

  • Activity Setting: Classroom
  • Materials: Pencil/ Pen on Paper or Word Document
  • Subject: Research, Artwork Analysis
  • Texas TEKS: Art Level I, Level II, Level III, and Level IV
  • Duration: Single Day Assignment or a Research Paper

Examine Otis Lumpkin’s painting The Yellow Fireplug. Afterwards, in a 3 – 4 page paper, discuss Lumpkin’s use of Texas Realism in his painting. Define Texas Realism, then, examine how Lumpkin expressed these attributes in The Yellow Fireplug. Students must create a bibliography and cite their sources.


Resources:

“Art Term: Oil Paint.” Tate Modern Museum. Updated 2021. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/o/oil-paint

“Art Term: Realism.” Tate Modern Museum. Updated 2021. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/r/realism

Cox, JoBeth. “Object Record: The Yellow Fireplug.” Tyler Museum of Art. Updated 2021. Accessed August 18, 2021. https://tylermuseum.pastperfectonline.com/webobject/FCC6E537-9376-4AC3-A937-085618204300

Murphy, Jessica. “Edward Hopper (1882 – 1967).” The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Updated: June 2007. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/hopp/hd_hopp.htm

“Nighthawks, 1942, Edward Hopper.” Art Institute in Chicago. Updated 2021. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://www.artic.edu/artworks/111628/nighthawks

Ragan, Rosalins. “Elements of Art.” In Art Talk, 61 – 211. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Francisco: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

Ragan, Rosalins. “The Principles of Design.” In Art Talk, 211 – 347. Edited by Bennett and McKnight Division. San Francisco: Glencoe Publishing Company, 1988.

Reece-Hughes, Shirley. “Everett Spruce: ‘A Deeper Realism’.” Texas Made Modern. Edited by Andrew J. Walker. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2020. https://www.google.com/books/edition/Texas_Made_Modern/Gkj_DwAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1

“Works: Edward Hopper, Early Sunday Morning.” Whitney Museum of American Art. Updated 2021. Accessed: August 18, 2021. https://whitney.org/collection/works/46345


You can see this artwork in-person at the Tyler Museum of Art’s current exhibition: Building a Legacy II: Selections from the Permanent Collection. Visit the exhibition page by clicking on the image below.


For more educational resources created by the Tyler Museum of Art, visit our YouTube page by clicking on the YouTube button or clicking the link below.

If you use or references this lesson plan, please leave a comment with your feedback.

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